Type Specimens of Hawaiian Land Snails in the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, with Lectotype Designations
Pacific island land snail faunas are among the most threatened faunas in the world, having suffered a higher rate of extinction than any other major animal group. The Hawaiian land snails are among the most species-rich and most severely effected of these faunas, yet the current status of most of the Hawaiian species is unknown. Most of the major taxonomic studies on the fauna were undertaken 50–100 years ago and only certain groups were comprehensively studied. New research is uncovering undescribed species, both extant and extinct. The need for rigorous taxonomic treatment of the group is acute if the taxonomic and conservation status of the many species is to be ascertained, and the basis for such research is comprehensive study of type material. The Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History holds type material of 39 nominal species-group taxa of Hawaiian land snails belonging to eight families; this annotated catalog provides details of this material. Of these taxa, 29 were described by Augustus Addison Gould from material collected by the U.S. Exploring Expedition of 1838–1842. For completeness, we also provide details for one lot of purported paralectotypes that are here inferred not to have been syntypes and one lot representing an unavailable infrasubspecific name. We designate lectotypes for 12 species-group taxa.
Yeung, Norine W., Robert H. Cowie, Kenneth A. Hayes, and Ellen E. Strong. Type Specimens of Hawaiian Land Snails in the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, with Lectotype Designations. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 647, vi + 34 pages, 11 figures, 2017.